The guards often let fugitives bleed to death in the middle of this ground, as in the most notorious failed attempt, that of Peter Fechter (aged 18) at a point near Zimmerstrasse in East Berlin. This was intended to prevent inadvertent recognition of East German authority when crossing between East and West Berlin, which could jeopardize the overall Allied position governing the freedom of movement by Allied forces personnel within all Berlin. Die Mauer wurde komplett beseitigt und es sind nur noch wenige Reste zu finden. Along some tourist areas of the city centre, the city government has marked the location of the former Wall by a row of cobblestones in the street. The sewer system predated the Wall, and some people escaped through the sewers,[89] in a number of cases with assistance from the Unternehmen Reisebüro. Through the years, the Berlin Wall evolved through four versions:[67], The "fourth-generation Wall", known officially as "Stützwandelement UL 12.11" (retaining wall element UL 12.11), was the final and most sophisticated version of the Wall. By early November refugees were finding their way to Hungary via Czechoslovakia, or via the West German Embassy in Prague. [18][19], The German Democratic Republic (the "GDR"; East Germany) was declared on 7 October 1949. However this movement of people grew so large it caused difficulties for both countries. Tourists crossing from the west had to also pay for a visa, which cost DM 5; West Berliners did not have to pay this fee. [113] The surprised and overwhelmed guards made many hectic telephone calls to their superiors about the problem. With Joost Siedhoff, Fritz Roth, Kai-Peter Gläser, Dominik Bender. [109] The protest demonstrations grew considerably by early November. A memorial of over a thousand crosses and a segment of the Wall for those who died trying to cross. [75], Despite the East German government's general policy of benign neglect, vandals were known to have been pursued in the outer strip, and even arrested. The material standard of life in the Western zones of Berlin began to improve quickly, and residents of the Soviet Zone soon began leaving for the West in large numbers, fleeing hunger, poverty and repression in the Soviet Zone for a better life in the West. 3, Article 3. p. 728. )[citation needed], The emigrants tended to be young and well-educated, leading to the "brain drain" feared by officials in East Germany. [12], At the same time, a parallel regime was established under the strict control of the Western powers in the zones of post-war Germany occupied by them, culminating in the foundation of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1949,[13] which initially claimed to be the sole legitimate power in all of Germany, East and West. Am nächsten Tag beginnen die Berliner, den anderen Teil ihrer Stadt zu entdecken. die Berliner Mauer an der Kreuzung Bernauer Straße und Schwedter Straße. entreated Mayor Wowereit. -, TheWall - Berliner Mauer live for Android Smartphones, "No one has the intention to erect a wall! Die Sperranlage schnitt über 50.000 Ost-Berliner von ihren Arbeitsplätzen im Westen ab. Later that night, on ARD's Tagesthemen, anchorman Hanns Joachim Friedrichs proclaimed, "This 9 November is a historic day. Brinkmann Says It Did, "The Guard Who Opened the Berlin Wall: 'I Gave my People the Order – Raise the Barrier, "East Germans may have arrived in West Berlin hours before previously thought", "Watching the fall of the Berlin Wall: 'I downed almost an entire bottle of schnapps, "One in 5 Germans wants Berlin Wall rebuilt", "Who built Berlin Wall? [30] The restrictions presented a quandary for some Eastern Bloc states, which had been more economically advanced and open than the Soviet Union, such that crossing borders seemed more natural—especially where no prior border existed between East and West Germany. [107] This set up a chain of events. Lead elements—arranged in a column of 491 vehicles and trailers carrying 1,500 men, divided into five march units—left the Helmstedt-Marienborn checkpoint at 06:34. The most vocal claims by Alexandra Hildebrandt, Director of the Checkpoint Charlie Museum and widow of the Museum's founder, estimated the death toll to be well above 200. [70] The concrete provisions added to this version of the Wall were done to prevent escapees from driving their cars through the barricades. Then protestors began to chant "Wir bleiben hier!" [91][92] In 1962, they planned an attempt to use explosives to destroy one tunnel, but this was not carried out as it was apparently sabotaged by a member of the Stasi. The Germans will guard the line of defence with their lives. This was a requirement of the post-war Four Powers Agreements. Die Berliner Mauer Geschichte eines politischen Bauwerks. Symbol des Kalten Krieges, der Trennung verfeindeter Systeme, der Abschottung, der Menschenverachtung: die Berliner Mauer. In most places only the "first" wall is marked, except near Potsdamer Platz where the stretch of both walls is marked, giving visitors an impression of the dimension of the barrier system. East Germans and others greeted such statements with skepticism, as most of the time, the border was only closed for citizens of East Germany traveling to the West, but not for residents of West Berlin travelling to the East. Die Teilung der Stadt ist für mich eine abgeschlossene geschichtliche Epoche, weit weg.Ich habe es einfach nicht miterlebt, deshalb ist die Erinnerung daran für mich nicht lebendig und nah. Likewise, Soviet military patrols could enter and exit West Berlin. ", "Did Brinkmannship Fell Berlin's Wall? [84], Early successful escapes involved people jumping the initial barbed wire or leaping out of apartment windows along the line, but these ended as the Wall was fortified. [81], In 1971, with the Four Power Agreement on Berlin, agreements were reached that allowed West Berliners to apply for visas to enter East Berlin and East Germany regularly, comparable to the regulations already in force for West Germans. 1999 - 2020 • Berliner Mauer als Spruchband: 1984 erstellte der Berliner Germanist Claus Hebell eine Zusammenschau aller Mauersprüche mittels einer Fahrradrundfahrt unter dem Titel „Conditio humana“ in der Kultur-Zeitschrift Kultuhr. The new regulations were to take effect the next day. Communists attempted to disrupt the elections of 1948, preceding large losses therein,[16] while 300,000 Berliners demonstrated for the international airlift to continue. [5], After the end of World War II in Europe, what remained of pre-war Germany west of the Oder-Neisse line was divided into four occupation zones (as per the Potsdam Agreement), each one controlled by one of the four occupying Allied powers: the United States, the United Kingdom, France and the Soviet Union. Die Gedenkstätte Berliner Mauer ist der zentrale Erinnerungsort an die deutsche Teilung, gelegen im Zentrum der Hauptstadt. [citation needed], For many years after reunification, people in Germany talked about cultural differences between East and West Germans (colloquially Ossis and Wessis), sometimes described as Mauer im Kopf (The wall in the head). [85], On 22 August 1961, Ida Siekmann was the first casualty at the Berlin Wall: she died after she jumped out of her third floor apartment at 48 Bernauer Strasse. ‎28 Jahre, zwei Monate und 28 Tage trennte die Berliner Mauer Ost und West. Eine der meistgestellten Fragen ist: "Wo ist die Mauer?". "Berlin Wall collected news and commentary", Berlin Wall collected news and commentary, "Meine Mauer – Deutsche Bilder aus der Vergangenheit", 1947–1948 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine, North Yemen-South Yemen Border conflict of 1972, Struggle against political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union, Sovereignty of Puerto Rico during the Cold War, Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War, List of Eastern Bloc agents in the United States, American espionage in the Soviet Union and Russian Federation, Eastern European anti-Communist insurgencies, Predictions of the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Destruction of early Islamic heritage sites in Saudi Arabia, Looting and burning of the Summer Palaces,, Buildings and structures completed in 1961, Buildings and structures demolished in 1989, Buildings and structures demolished in 1990, Former buildings and structures in Germany, Pages containing links to subscription-only content, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2019, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from August 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2020, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from November 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2017, Articles with trivia sections from August 2020, Official website different in Wikidata and Wikipedia, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Bordering around West Berlin within 3.4m and 4.2m in height, Cross attachment along the border of East and West Berlin, Remains of house fronts, land mansion bricks, Wall-shaped front wall with a height of 3.40 m, Expanded metal fence with a height of 2.90 m as a "front barrier", Border length around West Berlin: 155 km (96 mi), Border length between West Berlin and East Germany: 111.9 km (69.5 mi), Border length between West and East Berlin: 43.1 km (26.8 mi), Border length through residential areas in East Berlin: 37 km (23 mi), Concrete segment of wall height: 3.6 m (11.8 ft), Concrete segment of wall length: 106 km (66 mi), Anti-vehicle trenches length: 105.5 km (65.6 mi), Contact/signal fence length: 127.5 km (79.2 mi), Wire fence and concrete block wall (1961), Elderly pensioners could travel to the West starting in 1964, Visits of relatives for important family matters, People who had to travel to the West for professional reasons (for example, artists, truck drivers, musicians, writers, etc. [25] Yuri Andropov, then the CPSU Director on Relations with Communist and Workers' Parties of Socialist Countries, wrote an urgent letter on 28 August 1958, to the Central Committee about the significant 50% increase in the number of East German intelligentsia among the refugees. [81], Citizens of other East European countries were in general subject to the same prohibition of visiting Western countries as East Germans, though the applicable exception (if any) varied from country to country. [15] The Soviets mounted a public relations campaign against the Western policy change. [81], The Allies held that only the Soviet Union, and not the GDR, had authority to regulate Allied personnel in such cases. An account by Heinz Schäfer indicates that he also acted independently and ordered the opening of the gate at Waltersdorf-Rudow a couple of hours earlier. He attempted to swim across the Spree to West Berlin on 24 August 1961, the same day that East German police had received shoot-to-kill orders to prevent anyone from escaping. Many segments have been given to various institutions in the world. In a speech at the Brandenburg Gate commemorating the 750th anniversary of Berlin[104] on 12 June 1987, U.S. President Ronald Reagan challenged Mikhail Gorbachev, then the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, to tear down the Wall as a symbol of increasing freedom in the Eastern Bloc: We welcome change and openness; for we believe that freedom and security go together, that the advance of human liberty can only strengthen the cause of world peace. The longtime leader of East Germany, Erich Honecker, resigned on 18 October 1989 and was replaced by Egon Krenz that day. Die Bilder der Berliner Mauer, die am 13. No wall can permanently withstand the desire for freedom", proclaimed President Wulff.[128][129][130][131]. Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this Wall![105]. [98][99] Die iPhone-App "Die Berliner Mauer" gibt detailliert Antwort. Die original Mauer Stadtführungen zur Berliner Grenze im Jahr 2020. "[58][59] This warning did not reach John F. Kennedy until noon on 13 August 1961, while he was vacationing in his yacht off the Kennedy Compound in Hyannis Port, Massachusetts. But a West German policeman intervened, firing his weapon at the East German border guards. Four autobahns connected West Berlin to West Germany, including Berlin-Helmstedt autobahn, which entered East German territory between the towns of Helmstedt and Marienborn (Checkpoint Alpha), and which entered West Berlin at Dreilinden (Checkpoint Bravo for the Allied forces) in southwestern Berlin. Similar, very limited arrangements were made in 1964, 1965 and 1966. Juli 1989) Polizeipräsident von Berlin, "Hinterland wall on Bornholmer Straße – Witness to the events of 9 November 1989", "All About the 28-Year History, Rise and Fall of the Berlin Wall", "Facts of Berlin Wall – History of Berlin Wall", "Fourth Generation of Berlin Wall – History of Berlin Wall", "The Berlin wall : History of Berlin Wall : Facts", "Graffiti in the death strip: the Berlin wall's first street artist tells his story", "A line in history: the east German punks behind the Berlin Wall's most radical art stunt", "Before the Berlin Wall, people escaped through a wire fence", "Chronicle of the Berlin Wall: 9 September 1964", "Chronik der Mauer – Bau und Fall der Berliner Mauer | Opfer der Mauer", "Secret tunnels that brought freedom from Berlin's Wall", "Hatred of the Communist East that drove Berlin Wall tunneller", "Meet the Berlin Wall tunnel digger saved by Stasi 'hero, "The Berlin Wall bricklayer whose death became instrumental in its destruction", "David Bowie at the Berlin Wall: the incredible story of a concert and its role in history", "GERMANY: Thank you David Bowie for helping bring down the Berlin Wall", "Did Springsteen's 1988 Berlin gig rock the Wall? [42], The transcript of a telephone call between Nikita Khrushchev and Ulbricht, on 1 August in the same year, suggests that the initiative for the construction of the Wall came from Khrushchev. [45][page needed] At the end of the press conference, Schabowski read out loud the note he had been given. However, East German authorities could still refuse entry permits.[81]. The number of people who died trying to cross the Wall, or as a result of the Wall's existence, has been disputed. "[35], With the closing of the inner German border officially in 1952,[35] the border in Berlin remained considerably more accessible because it was administered by all four occupying powers. [10], Within two years, political divisions increased between the Soviets and the other occupying powers. [7][8] A historic research group at the Centre for Contemporary History (ZZF) in Potsdam has confirmed at least 140 deaths. Die Berliner Mauer heute. Die Zonengrenze zwischen Berlin (Westsektoren) und … In 1989, a series of revolutions in nearby Eastern Bloc countries—in Poland and Hungary in particular—caused a chain reaction in East Germany that ultimately resulted in the demise of the Wall. During the construction of the Wall, National People's Army (NVA) and Combat Groups of the Working Class (KdA) soldiers stood in front of it with orders to shoot anyone who attempted to defect. Western powers portrayed it as a symbol of communist tyranny, particularly after East German border guards shot and killed would-be defectors. Sie sollte die Flucht von DDR-Bürgern in den Westen verhindern. He was fired at and seriously wounded by border guards. August 1961 bis zum 9. [5], It had the unintended result of drastically increasing the percentage of those leaving through West Berlin from 60% to well over 90% by the end of 1958. But this starting time delay was not communicated to Schabowski. 10 cm starke Betonplatten - ohne Zementierung - eingeschoben. Documentary films specifically about the Berlin Wall include: Fictional films featuring the Berlin Wall have included: Some novels specifically about the Berlin Wall include: Music related to the Berlin Wall includes: Artworks related to the Berlin Wall include: Video games related to the Berlin Wall include: Barrier constructed by the German Democratic Republic, enclosing West Berlin, Map of the location of the Berlin Wall, showing, Concerts by Western artists and growing anti-Wall sentiment. Die Berliner Mauer hat die Stadt von 1961 bis 1989 in zwei Teile getrennt. Fragments of the Wall were taken and some were sold around the world. (No one has the intention of erecting a wall!). [74], As was the case with the inner German border, an unfortified strip of Eastern territory was left outside the wall. "[51], United States and UK sources had expected the Soviet sector to be sealed off from West Berlin, but were surprised by how long the East Germans took for such a move. Vitaliev, V. (2008). [35] Those caught trying to leave East Berlin were subjected to heavy penalties, but with no physical barrier and subway train access still available to West Berlin, such measures were ineffective. Both the eastern and western networks converged at Friedrichstraße, which became a major crossing point for those (mostly Westerners) with permission to cross. Between 1961 and 1989, the Wall prevented almost all such emigration. [41], On 15 June 1961, First Secretary of the Socialist Unity Party and GDR State Council chairman Walter Ulbricht stated in an international press conference, "Niemand hat die Absicht, eine Mauer zu errichten!" Diese Seite verwendet Frames. [5][67][80], Non-German Westerners could cross the border at Friedrichstraße station in East Berlin and at Checkpoint Charlie. [95] The last person to be shot and killed while trying to cross the border was Chris Gueffroy on 6 February 1989, while the final person to die in an escape attempt was Winfried Freudenberg who was killed when his homemade natural gas-filled balloon crashed on 8 March 1989. This was tolerated by the new Krenz government, because of long-standing agreements with the communist Czechoslovak government, allowing free travel across their common border. This version of the Wall is the one most commonly seen in photographs, and surviving fragments of the Wall in Berlin and elsewhere around the world are generally pieces of the fourth-generation Wall. For this reason, elaborate procedures were established to prevent inadvertent recognition of East German authority when engaged in travel through the GDR and when in East Berlin. Such fatalities were later treated as acts of murder by the reunified Germany.[62]. Von Januar bis Anfang August 1961 wurden rund 1… According to Tobias Ruther, these protests in East Berlin were the first in the sequence of riots that led to those of November 1989. Construction of a new railway bypassing West Berlin, the Berlin outer ring, commenced in 1951. Most Russians don't know | Reuters", "Germany marks 50th anniversary of Berlin Wall", "Germany Marks Construction of the Berlin Wall", "Reflecting on the Berlin Wall, 50 Years After Its Construction", "50 Years Berlin Wall 1961–1989 [video clips]", "The Day Before The Berlin Wall: Could We have Stopped It? S-Bahn und U-Bahnstrecken, Straßen und Telefonverbindungen wurden unterbrochen. The memorial stood for ten months in 2004 and 2005 before it was removed. This regulation remained in force essentially until the fall of the Wall, but over the years several exceptions to these rules were introduced, the most significant being: For each of these exceptions, GDR citizens had to apply for individual approval, which was never guaranteed. Built in 1961, the Berlin Wall is the single most important symbol of Germany's former division. [5] The Brandenburg Gate, a few meters from the Berlin Wall, was opened on 22 December 1989. [126], Not all segments of the Wall were ground up as the Wall was being torn down. Es gibt viele Spuren und Erinnerungen an die Mauer, welche Berlin einmal geteilt hat, zu entdecken: The following present-day municipalities, listed in counter-clockwise direction, share a border with the former West Berlin: There were nine border crossings between East and West Berlin. However, following the defection of large numbers of East Germans (known as Republikflucht) under this regime, the new East German state legally restricted virtually all travel to the West in 1956. Soon afterward, a crowd of West Berliners jumped on top of the Wall, and were soon joined by East German youngsters. Clay had been the Military Governor of the US Zone of Occupation in Germany during the period of the Berlin Blockade and had ordered the first measures in what became the Berlin Airlift. [60], On Sunday morning, U.S. troops marched from West Germany through East Germany, bound for West Berlin. Gemeinsam mit seinen Bandkollegen besucht er die Reste der Berliner Mauer, die bis 1989 die Stadt in zwei Teile geteilt hat. I've come to play rock 'n' roll for you in the hope that one day all the barriers will be torn down". Die Berliner Mauer war eines der berühmtesten Bauwerke der Welt. Thus, they concluded that the possibility of a Soviet military conflict over Berlin had decreased. [55] The Eastern German government also claimed that West Berliners were buying out state-subsidized goods in East Berlin. Die Berliner Mauer in Zahlen (Stand: 30.12.1989). Generally, the Wall was only slightly inside East Berlin, but in a few places it was some distance from the legal border, most notably at Potsdamer Bahnhof[49] and the Lenné Triangle[50] that is now much of the Potsdamer Platz development. 29: Iss. August 2008) (in German)",, "Everything you need to know about the Berlin Wall", Bayerisches Staatsministerium für Arbeit und Sozialordnung, Familie und Frauen, Statistik Spätaussiedler Dezember 2007, Wiegrefe, Klaus. Learn how to create your own. [108], The East German government responded by disallowing any further travel to Hungary, but allowed those already there to return to East Germany. Ten percent of people surveyed thought Berlin residents built it themselves. By stemming the exodus of people from East Germany, the East German government was able to reassert its control over the country: in spite of discontent with the Wall, economic problems caused by dual currency and the black market were largely eliminated. If an escapee was wounded in a crossing attempt and lay on the death strip, no matter how close they were to the Western wall, Westerners could not intervene for fear of triggering engaging fire from the 'Grepos', the East Berlin border guards. It is part of the initiative by Berlin Senate since 2005. The Berlin Wall was a guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989. These regulations had only been completed a few hours earlier and were to take effect the following day, so as to allow time to inform the border guards. [88], East Germans successfully defected by a variety of methods: digging long tunnels under the Wall, waiting for favorable winds and taking a hot air balloon, sliding along aerial wires, flying ultralights and, in one instance, simply driving a sports car at full speed through the basic, initial fortifications. Early on 19 August, the 1st Battle Group, 18th Infantry Regiment (commanded by Colonel Glover S. Johns Jr.) was alerted. Special rules applied to travel by Western Allied military personnel assigned to the military liaison missions accredited to the commander of Soviet forces in East Germany, located in Potsdam.[81]. Stefan Teetz - Hauptvertretung Alt-Friedrichsfelde 6 a 10315 Berlin Telefon: +49 30 5252810 Telefax: +49 30 52279739 Mobil: +49 173 3736392 Nevertheless, Ulbricht had pushed for a border closure for quite some time, arguing that East Germany's very existence was at stake. Hier die wichtigste Fakten zum Mauerfall und zur Friedlichen Revolution in der DDR. On 15 August 1961, Conrad Schumann was the first East German border guard to escape by jumping the barbed wire to West Berlin. einem Meter errichtet wurden. While John F. Kennedy and Ronald Reagan delivered their famous speeches from the safety of West Berlin, Springsteen's speaking out against the Wall in the middle of East Berlin added to the euphoria. The GDR has announced that, starting immediately, its borders are open to everyone. [101] East Germany and its FDJ youth organization were worried they were losing an entire generation. Crowds of East Germans crossed and climbed onto the Wall, joined by West Germans on the other side in a celebratory atmosphere. [5], The front of the convoy arrived at the outskirts of Berlin just before noon, to be met by Clay and Johnson, before parading through the streets of Berlin in front of a large crowd. Continual economic growth starting in the 1950s fueled a 20-year "economic miracle" ("Wirtschaftswunder"). Stalin agreed, calling the situation "intolerable". Although differences are still perceived between East and West, Germans make similar distinctions between North and South. Appearing both with and without certificates of authenticity, these fragments are now a staple on the online auction service eBay as well as German souvenir shops. Several other border crossings existed between West Berlin and surrounding East Germany. A "BERLINER MAUER 1961–1989" plaque near Checkpoint Charlie signifying where the Wall stood, Display of two sections of the Wall and a "You are leaving" sign at Fort Gordon, Georgia, The Berlin Wall from the East Berlin side, 1967, A sign reading "Until we see each other again in the capital of the GDR", Czech hedgehog anti-tank obstacles and the Wall, An exhibition dedicated to the 25th anniversary to the Berlin Wall destruction was located at Potsdamer Platz Arkaden. [25] Taking advantage of the zonal border between occupied zones in Germany, the number of GDR citizens moving to West Germany totaled 187,000 in 1950; 165,000 in 1951; 182,000 in 1952; and 331,000 in 1953. The Wall gave rise to a widespread sense of desperation and oppression in East Berlin, as expressed in the private thoughts of one resident, who confided to her diary "Our lives have lost their spirit… we can do nothing to stop them. [17] In May 1949, Stalin lifted the blockade, permitting the resumption of Western shipments to Berlin. Natürlich stand die Mauer nicht auf Neuköllner Boden, sondern auf Alt-Treptower Grund. Engels stole a Soviet armored personnel carrier from a base where he was deployed and drove it right into the Wall. Little is left of the Wall at its original site, which was destroyed almost in its entirety. Torn down, demolished, donated to museums and universities around the world, and sold as souvenirs - the wall almost disappeared from the city's landscape. "For the next three and a half years, American battalions would rotate into West Berlin, by autobahn, at three month intervals to demonstrate Allied rights to the city". Weltpolitische Ereignisse interessieren dabei ebenso wie persönliche Zeitzeugenberichte. Bearbeite die erste Aufgabe, bevor du das Video abspielst. [14] The United States, the United Kingdom, France, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and several other countries began a massive "airlift", supplying West Berlin with food and other supplies. The East Germany authorities eventually used seismographic and acoustic equipment to detect the practice. Clay and Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson arrived at Tempelhof Airport on the afternoon of Saturday, 19 August 1961. Mehr als 28 Jahre lang war sie das Symbol der deutsch-deutschen Teilung: die Berliner Mauer. 25 Jahre Mauerfall Der Fall der Berliner Mauer jährt sich am 09. Torn down, demolished, donated to museums and universities around the world, and sold as souvenirs - the wall almost disappeared from the city's landscape. "It is our shared responsibility to keep the memory alive and to pass it on to the coming generations as a reminder to stand up for freedom and democracy to ensure that such injustice may never happen again." "[38], By 1960, the combination of World War II and the massive emigration westward left East Germany with only 61% of its population of working age, compared to 70.5% before the war. ("We want out!"). This resulted in Berlin becoming a magnet for East Germans desperate to escape life in the GDR, and also a flashpoint for tension between the United States and the Soviet Union. Crosby, Stills & Nash 1990 – Chippin' Away, General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, dismantling the electrified fence along its border with Austria, "30 years ago, the fall of the Berlin Wall - the end of the Cold War", Removal of Hungary's border fence with Austria, "Untangling 5 myths about the Berlin Wall", "Berlin Wall: Five things you might not know", "Forschungsprojekt "Die Todesopfer an der Berliner Mauer, 1961–1989": BILANZ (Stand: 7. The economy in the GDR began to grow. 30 Jahre sind vergangen seit die Berliner Mauer gefallen ist. "Wir lassen euch jetzt ein, zwei Wochen Zeit", "Transcript of the telephone call between Khrushchev and Ulbricht on August 1, 1961", "Wall Goes Up in Berlin – Events of 1961 – Year in Review", "Goethe-Institut – Topics – German-German History Goethe-Institut", "Neues Deutschland: Normales Leben in Berlin,14 August 1961", "Berlin Crisis After Dividing Berlin, August 1961", Berliner Mauer (Stand 31. Mauerverlauf 1961 - 1989. [53], The East German government claimed that the Wall was an "anti-fascist protective rampart" (German: "antifaschistischer Schutzwall") intended to dissuade aggression from the West. East Germany to the 1990s Can It Resist Glasnost? Kaum noch sind Teile von ihr als Mahnmal erhalten. A particular area of concern for the Western Allies involved official dealings with East German authorities when crossing the border, since Allied policy did not recognize the authority of the GDR to regulate Allied military traffic to and from West Berlin, as well as the Allied presence within Greater Berlin, including entry into, exit from, and presence within East Berlin. Later, the initial barrier was built up into the Wall proper, the first concrete elements and large blocks being put in place on 17 August.